Backpacking allows you to explore remote wilderness and connect with nature. If you’re new to backpacking, the extensive gear and planning required can seem daunting. This complete guide covers everything you need to know to plan your first successful backpacking trip.
# What is Backpacking?
Backpacking involves hiking and camping in the backcountry where you carry all required camping gear in a backpack. It allows you to access scenic locations beyond where roads can take you. Backpacking trips vary from single overnights to weeks-long expeditions.
The main benefits of backpacking include:
- Exploring and experiencing breathtaking natural environments
- Developing outdoor skills like navigation and camping
- Testing your physical endurance and mental resilience
- Escaping the stress of everyday life
- Gaining a sense of independence and accomplishment
To prepare, research your route thoroughly and get in hiking shape by running or taking long walks with a loaded daypack. Developing mental toughness is just as important as physical fitness when backpacking.
# Essential Backpacking Gear
The backpack itself is one of the most critical gear choices. Look for backpacks designed for multi-day camping with a minimum capacity of 50 liters. Make sure to get a proper fit suited for your torso length. The hip belt should wrap around your hip bones and support the majority of the weight.
Your sleep system includes your tent, sleeping bag, and sleeping pad. Three-season tents work well for most conditions during warmer months. Make sure it’s large enough for you and any gear you may want to store inside. Go for a sleeping bag rated to the coldest nighttime temperatures you expect to encounter. Inflatable sleeping pads provide insulation and cushioning.
Clothing and Layers
Pack versatile layers that allow you to adjust to changing temperatures and conditions. Bring moisture-wicking base layers, insulating mid-layers like fleeces, and waterproof/breathable outer shells and pants. Round out your wardrobe with gloves, warm hats, and hiking socks.
For cooking, bring a compact backpacking stove, fuel canister, pot, mug, utensils, and lighter. Plan easy, high-calorie meals and snacks. Repackage ingredients to save weight and space.
Navigation and Safety
Carry topographic maps of your route along with a compass. Bring a headlamp, first aid kit, pocket knife, sunglasses, and sunscreen as well. For emergencies, pack a satellite communicator or personal locator beacon.
# Choosing a Backpacking Route
When selecting a backpacking route, consider these factors:
- Distance and elevation gain/loss – Start with shorter distances and less elevation
- Terrain – Stick to well-defined trails without much off-trail hiking
- Land regulations – Research permit requirements and campfire bans
- Current conditions – Check for potential route closures due to weather events
- Time of year – Account for seasonal temperature and precipitation averages
Look for trails through national parks and forests with established campsites. For example, parts of the Appalachian Trail make ideal intro backpacking trips.
# Planning Your First Trip
- Set Mileage Goals : Be realistic about daily and overall mileage goals based on your fitness. Adding too much mileage or elevation per day increases injury risk. For newer backpackers, 5 to 10 miles per day is reasonable.
- Craft a Detailed Itinerary : Outline the segments, landmarks, campsites, water sources, and resupply points for each day. Identify bailout points where you can exit early in case of emergency.
- Obtain Permits : Research which permits you’ll need for parking, camping, campfires, fishing, etc. along your planned route. Factor permit costs into your trip budget.
- Safety Considerations : Check weather reports leading up to your trip and pack appropriate gear for forecasted conditions. Share your exact route and itinerary with someone at home. Bring maps and a compass for navigation as well as a first aid kit for minor medical issues.
# Packing Your Backpack
- Use Efficient Packing Methods : Organize gear into stuff sacks by category for easy access. Heavy items should go high and close to your back. Light items can go on the bottom and outer pockets. Aim to fill all available space for better weight distribution. Compress clothes and sleeping bags.
- Watch Pack Weight : Pack weight is one of the biggest causes of fatigue and injury on the trail. Try to keep your pack weight under 20% of your body weight as a precaution. Know your limits and work up to higher pack weights gradually.
- Waterproof Important Items : Line your pack interior with a trash compactor bag. Use waterproof stuff sacks or Ziploc bags for sleeping gear, clothes, and electronics. Pack items in plastic bags layered inside your pack.
# Navigating on the Trail
- Understand How to Use Maps and Compass : Use a compass and map together regularly to orient yourself. Take consistent pace counts between known landmarks to pinpoint your location. Match surroundings to terrain indicators on maps.
- Look for Trail Markers and Signs : Follow rock cairns, blazes, and trail signs at junctions. Use extra caution in areas where trails fade. Use flags or stones to mark your route if needed.
- Consider a GPS Device or App : Battery-powered GPS devices and smartphone apps like Gaia GPS are helpful navigation aids, but may not work in areas without cell service. Always carry paper maps as a backup.
# Finding Water and Planning Food
- Locate Water Sources : Spring water, streams, and lakes can often be used after proper treatment. Check maps for locations and camp near water sources. Always have a backup plan for dry segments.
- Water Treatment : Filter, disinfect, or boil found water to avoid contamination. Carry a lightweight filter or chemical treatments like iodine tablets. Boiling water for at least 1 minute also eliminates bacteria and viruses.
- Meal Planning : Pack calorie-dense backpacking foods that you enjoy eating. Good options include dehydrated meals, pasta sides, instant rice, oatmeal, protein bars, nuts, jerky, and chocolate.
- Protect Food from Wildlife : Depending on your destination, you may need to hang food bags from tree branches or store food in an approved bear-resistant container away from your tent.
# Setting Up Camp
- Pick Flat, Protected Campsites : Look for sites that are level, dry, and provide shelter from wind if possible. Avoid camping right next to standing water or trails. Check for widowmakers, loose rocks, and roots.
- Tent Placement : Clear the area of sticks, rocks and sharp objects before setting up your tent. Stake out all corners tightly. Use a footprint or tarp for additional moisture protection.
- Practice Leave No Trace : Follow Leave No Trace principles: minimize campfire impacts, leave vegetation intact, pack out all trash, and leave the campsite in better condition than you found it.
# Handling Challenging Weather
- Rain and Thunderstorms : During storms, avoid exposed ridges and summit areas. Seek shelter in below tree line zones if available. Stay in your tent if possible. Prepare for rising water levels if camping near rivers.
- Hot Weather : Hike early in the day to avoid midday heat. Rest in shaded areas during the hottest time window. Hydrate frequently and replenish electrolytes. Cover skin and use sunscreen.
- Cold Weather : Layer clothing to stay warm and change out of sweaty garments regularly. Keep your sleeping bag and a few essentials in your tent in case you need to hunker down. Stay hydrated and fuel your internal furnace with high-calorie foods.
- High Altitude : Acclimatize by slowly gaining elevation. Stay hydrated, avoid overexertion, and immediately descend if you develop symptoms of altitude sickness.
# Staying Healthy and Hygienic
- Personal Hygiene : Schedule dedicated times for thorough hand cleaning, especially before meals. Use wet wipes and bandanas to clean other body parts. Avoid washing directly in lakes and streams.
- First Aid Kit : Carry ibuprofen, antihistamines, bandages, antibiotic ointment, blister pads, wraps, scissors, tweezers, safety pins and any personal medications needed. Know basic first aid treatments.
- Health Considerations : Take care of your feet and watch for hot spots that can lead to blisters. Stay hydrated and replace electrolytes. Get adequate rest between demanding hiking days. Adjust pacing for changes in elevation.
# Wildlife Encounters
- Animal Behavior : Respect wildlife by not approaching or feeding them. Give them space, especially around dens and nests. Attempt to keep food odors away from campsites.
- Bear Safety : Talk, sing or wear bear bells to make noise on the trail. Avoid surprising bears. Store food properly at night and use designated bear bags and poles where required.
- Other Wildlife : Carry bear spray for added protection if needed. Know proper procedures if you encounter predators like mountain lions or venomous snakes.
# Leave No Trace Principles
- Planning : Obtain permits, pack out waste, leave fires minimal or avoid altogether. Stick to designated trails and campsites whenever possible.
- Campsite Choices : Select durable surfaces like sand or gravel. Set up tents and kitchen away from water sources. Avoid digging trenches around tents or manipulating terrain.
- Dispose of Waste : Pack out all trash, leftover food, and hygiene products. Use restroom facilities or dig waste pits at least 200 feet from water sources.
# Developing Outdoor Skills
- Navigation : Practice orienting maps, reading terrain, taking and recording compass bearings. Navigate to landmarks at home using map and compass together.
- Camp Cooking : Get used to your camp stove and prep easy no-cook meals. Carry a backup lighter. Familiarize yourself with differences between backpacking and home cooking.
- Gear Repairs : Carry repair kits, tape and backup parts for your gear. Know how to patch holes, replace broken buckles and fix other common equipment issues while on the go.
# Backpacking Safety Tips
- Solo vs Group Travel : Solo travel allows for more flexibility and introspection. Groups provide added safety and shared costs. Assess your comfort level and goals.
- Communication : Consider a satellite texting device to update loved ones. Schedule check-ins when you will have cell service. Share specific plans before departing.
- Emergency Planning : Pack extra food, water, clothing and survival essentials. Identify bailout points along your route. Know how to signal rescuers if needed.
# Budgeting for Your Trip
- Calculate Gear and Startup Costs : Quality gear lasts years, balances cost. Rent expensive equipment first. Check used sites for deals on gear.
- Save on Food : Repackage in bulk, make your own dehydrated meals, take advantage of member discounts at stores.
- Affordable Lodging : Camp instead of staying at hotels. Check hostel rates and public campground fees. Time lodging around peak seasons.
# Final Thoughts
Backpacking delivers an immense sense of reward. Start small, be prepared, and connect with nature during valuable time spent unplugged in the backcountry. Gain resilience while enjoying stunning scenery and solitude. The challenges transform you.
Let us know about your first backpacking experience! We hope these tips help you plan an epic beginner-friendly trip.